Ubuntu is a Linux distribution that has one of the largest online communities. It is based on Debian the community-based distribution and is a trademark of Canonical Ltd which is also its largest sponsor.
Ubuntu uses time-based release cycles, a new version is released every 6 months and every 2 years one of these versions is set as a Long Term Support (LTS) version. LTS desktop versions are supported 3 years and server versions for 5. Version numbers are actually the release year and month, for example the current release is 10.4 which is April 2010. Releases are name after animals and starting from version 6.06 where chosen in alphabetical order. These are versions and their names:
- 4.10 – Warty Warthog
- 5.04 – Hoary Hedgehog
- 5.10 – Breezy Badger
- 6.06 LTS – Dapper Drake
- 6.10 – Edgy Eft
- 7.04 – Feisty Fawn
- 7.10 – Gutsy Gibbon
- 8.04 LTS – Hardy Heron
- 8.10 – Intrepid Ibex
- 9.04 – Jaunty Jackalope
- 9.10 – Karmic Koala
- 10.04 LTS – Lucid Lynx
Ubuntu calls its repositories components and they are:
- The Main component contains software that is free and open source, can be freely redistributed and is fully supported by the Ubuntu team.
- The Restricted component contains commonly used software that is not under a completely free license. The Ubuntu team’s support of this software is limited to forwarding the problems to the authors.
- The Universe component is automatically built from a number of public sources and you can find almost any open source software. Ubuntu does not guarantee security fixes and support for these applications.
- The Multiverse component contains non-free software and it is not supported nor updated by Ubuntu.
- Ubuntu installs with the Gnome desktop. This is the first flavor to ship and is the default.
- Kubuntu installs with the KDE desktop.
- Xubuntu installs with the Xfce desktop and is suitable for older computers because of Xfce’s low resource requirements.
- Edubuntu is targeted at schools. It includes applications and games appropriate for children.
- UbuntuStudio is for audio, video and graphics enthusiasts and professionals.